It is estimated that over 50 million died as a result of the Second World War, more then half of them civilians. In the German newspapers during the last few years of the war the lists headed "Died for our Führer, our Nation, our Fatherland" took up ever more space. There were no official lists for the victims of Nazi terror in occupied countries, for those who died in captivity, for those subjected to forced labor and racial persecution; there were equally few for the victims of partisan warfare or of Allied air raids. Hundreds of thousands of German soldiers remained for many years in Soviet captivity. Million of people were registered as missing. What happened to them was either never clarified or not until years or decades had passed. This total war no longer distinguished between soldiers and civilians, between men and women, between adults and children, and brought about a hitherto unknown degree of fear, loss of liberty, pain, illness and disease, separation, starvation, injury, alienation, abandonment, death. For most Germans the experiences of the war were mixed with the experience of devastating defeat. It was not only a military, but also a political, economic, and, above all, a moral catastrophe.