In the fall of 1941, as the mass shootings in the Soviet Union were already underway, plans were being prepared for the murder of all European Jews. From December 1941 on, trains began rolling into the extermination camps in Poland. After the Soviet Jews, it was the turn of the Polish Jews to die; they were gassed in the camps resulting from Operation Reinhard as well as in Kulmhof (Chelmno) and Majdanek. From the summer of 1942 Jews from all over Europe, from Norway to Corfu, died in the gas chambers of Auschwitz-Birkenau. By the end of the war almost six million Jewish men, women, and children had been murdered.